Social Well-Being Tracker

Our social well-being indicators are based on social determinants of health. These indicators are the economic and social conditions that shape the health of individuals and communities. Social determinants of health also determine the extent to which a person possesses the physical, social, and personal resources to identify and achieve personal aspirations, satisfy needs, and cope with the environment. Social determinants of health are about the quantity and quality of a variety of resources that a society makes available to its members. Important considerations include both the quality and their distribution amongst the population. 1

BAIncome & Income Gaps

BA11Consumer Insolvency Rate per 1,000 persons aged 18 and overEdmonton CMA

Trend Analysis

Short Term


Long Term

Trend Value Positive


Income is perhaps the most important social determinate of health. Level of income affects an individual or family’s ability to access goods and services that shape their living conditions and quality of life. Individuals and families need an income to pay for child care, housing, post-secondary education, healthy food, and out-of-pocket medical costs. Individuals and families with low incomes may face difficulty affording basic necessities and may be at higher risk of poverty and social exclusion.

It is important to consider income against the rising costs of living. When the cost of living increases at a faster rate than incomes, more low- and modest-income families are at risk of poverty.

Consumer Insolvency Rate

  • The insolvency rate has steadily decreased over the last 20 years.
  • In a personal bankruptcy, all non-exempt assets are given to a trustee who sells them and distributes any proceeds to creditors. In a proposal, a debtor makes arrangements with creditors to pay agreed upon amounts or percentages of what is owed.
  • The insolvency rate—which combines bankruptcies and proposals into a combined rate—decreased from 5.6 per 1,000 adults in the year 2000 to 4.6 per 1,000 adults in the year 2019, a decrease of 17.9%. Insolvency rates tend to go up during economic downturns though the overall trend line has gone down.
  • There has also been a trend toward consumer proposals and away from bankruptcies, in part because the latter are often contested, thereby driving up legal costs for both parties.

Frenette, Marc. (2007). Why are youth from lower-in-come families less likely to attend university? Evidence from academic abilities, parental influences, and financial constraints. Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series. Catalogue no. 11F0019MIE - No. 295

BA1. Number of Tax-filers Statistics Canada. Table 11-10-0004-01 Selected characteristics of tax filers and dependants, income and demographics (final T1 Family File).

BA2. Female to male income ratio Statistics Canada. Table 11-10-0050-01 Tax filers and dependents with income by after-tax income, sex and age.

BA3 to BA5. Median after tax income by family type Statistics Canada. Table 11-10-0017-01 Census families by family type and family composition including before and after-tax median income of the family.

BA6 to BA8. Source of Income, By family type Statistics Canada. Table 11-10-0014-01 Sources of in-come by census family type

BA9. Real Median After tax income growth Statistics Canada. Table 11-10-0056-01 High income tax filers in Canada, specific geographic area thresholds, Statistics Canada. Table 18-10-0005-01 Consumer Price Index, annual average, not seasonally adjusted

BA10. Value of Alberta Minimum Wage Statistics Canada. (2018). Hourly minimum wages in Canada for adult workers. Retrieved from: , Statistics Canada. Table 18-10-0005-01 Consumer Price Index, annual average, not seasonally adjusted

BA11. Consumer Insolvency Rate Government of Canada (2020). Annual consumer insolvency rates by census metropolitan area. Retrieved from:

(1) Raphael, D. (2004). Introduction to the social determinants of health. In D. Raphael (ed.) Social Determinates of Health: Canadian perspectives. Toronto: Canadian Scholar’s Press Inc.

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Edmonton, Alberta T5H 2X6



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