Social Well-Being Tracker

Our social well-being indicators are based on social determinants of health. These indicators are the economic and social conditions that shape the health of individuals and communities. Social determinants of health also determine the extent to which a person possesses the physical, social, and personal resources to identify and achieve personal aspirations, satisfy needs, and cope with the environment. Social determinants of health are about the quantity and quality of a variety of resources that a society makes available to its members. Important considerations include both the quality and their distribution amongst the population. 1

CEmployment & Labour

C10Percentage of Employment Income to Total Income, Seniors Aged 65 Years and OlderEdmonton CMA

Trend Analysis

Short Term


Long Term



Employment-related measures indicate the strength of an economy and, accordingly, the population’s ability to sustain itself. Higher unemployment rates lead to more people needing income support to maintain a minimal standard of living and challenge governments and businesses to find opportunities to stimulate job growth. Lower unemployment rates also have their challenges—for instance, employed individuals may struggle to balance their work and family roles, and may face difficulties to secure adequate child care or obtain affordable housing. 

The unemployment rates experienced by Indigenous peoples and youth are significantly higher at all times, but especially during economic downturns. While unemployment rates for women have typically been lower than those for men, especially in recent years, women’s earnings from employment continue to be significantly lower than those of men. 

Percentage of Employment Income to Total Income, Seniors Aged 65 Years and Older

  • Since more Edmonton seniors are working beyond the age of 65, the proportion of employment income compared to total income is also going up.
  • In the year 2000, employment income for those 65 years and older comprised 12.5% of total income. By 2015, the employment income percentage of total income almost doubled to 23.4%.
  • In 2019, employment income as a percentage of total income decreased slightly to 19.8%.
  • Despite the steady increase, the trend toward a greater reliance on employment income reversed during economic downturns in 2009-2011 and again in 2015.

C1 to C6. Employment and Unemployment
Statistics Canada. Table 14-10-0385-01 Labour force characteristics, annual (only for years 2006-2020)
Years 1991-2005 from past Tracking the Trends

C7. Duration of Unemployment
Statistics Canada. Table 14-10-0057-01 Duration of un-employment, annual

C8. Off Reserve Indigenous unemployment
Off-Reserve Indigenous Unemployment, Edmonton: Government of Alberta (2017). Labour Force statistics: Alberta Indigenous People Living Off-Reserve Package. Retrieved from

C9 and C10. Seniors and employment
Statistics Canada. Table 11-10-0039-01 - Characteristics of seniors, tax-filers and dependents, seniors with income by source of income and age groups, annual

C11 and C12. Population by Occupation
Statistics Canada. Table 14-10-0314-01 Employment by census metropolitan areas and occupation, annual (x 1,000)

(1) Raphael, D. (2004). Introduction to the social determinants of health. In D. Raphael (ed.) Social Determinates of Health: Canadian perspectives. Toronto: Canadian Scholar's Press Inc.

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