Social Well-Being Tracker

Our social well-being indicators are based on social determinants of health. These indicators are the economic and social conditions that shape the health of individuals and communities. Social determinants of health also determine the extent to which a person possesses the physical, social, and personal resources to identify and achieve personal aspirations, satisfy needs, and cope with the environment. Social determinants of health are about the quantity and quality of a variety of resources that a society makes available to its members. Important considerations include both the quality and their distribution amongst the population. 1

BAIncome & Income Gaps

BA2Percent female income compared to maleEdmonton CMA

Trend Analysis

Short Term

Long Term

Trend Value Positive


Income is perhaps the most important social determinate of health. Level of income affects an individual or family’s ability to access goods and services that shape their living conditions and quality of life. Individuals and families need an income to pay for child care, housing, post-secondary education, healthy food, and out-of-pocket medical costs. Individuals and families with low incomes may face difficulty affording basic necessities and may be at higher risk of poverty and social exclusion.

It is important to consider income against the rising costs of living. When the cost of living increases at a faster rate than incomes, more low- and modest-income families are at risk of poverty.

Percent female income compared to male

  • Among metro Edmonton tax-filers, a significant income gender gap persists.
  • In 2019, female tax-filers reported 70.7% of the after-tax income reported by male tax-filers, a 6.6 percentage point increase since the year 2009.
  • All of the income transfers from federal and provincial governments are included in after-tax income, showing that a significant income gender gap persists.
  • The only discernable trend in this 15-year period is that the difference between female and male incomes shrinks when the economy slows (such as in the years 2009 and 2015) and expands when the economy is stronger. This could be due to the fact that men tend to work in industries that are more affected by economic ups and downs.

Frenette, Marc. (2007). Why are youth from lower-in-come families less likely to attend university? Evidence from academic abilities, parental influences, and financial constraints. Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series. Catalogue no. 11F0019MIE - No. 295

BA1. Number of Tax-filers Statistics Canada. Table 11-10-0004-01 Selected characteristics of tax filers and dependants, income and demographics (final T1 Family File).

BA2. Female to male income ratio Statistics Canada. Table 11-10-0050-01 Tax filers and dependents with income by after-tax income, sex and age.

BA3 to BA5. Median after tax income by family type Statistics Canada. Table 11-10-0017-01 Census families by family type and family composition including before and after-tax median income of the family.

BA6 to BA8. Source of Income, By family type Statistics Canada. Table 11-10-0014-01 Sources of in-come by census family type

BA9. Real Median After tax income growth Statistics Canada. Table 11-10-0056-01 High income tax filers in Canada, specific geographic area thresholds, Statistics Canada. Table 18-10-0005-01 Consumer Price Index, annual average, not seasonally adjusted

BA10. Value of Alberta Minimum Wage Statistics Canada. (2018). Hourly minimum wages in Canada for adult workers. Retrieved from: , Statistics Canada. Table 18-10-0005-01 Consumer Price Index, annual average, not seasonally adjusted

BA11. Consumer Insolvency Rate Government of Canada (2020). Annual consumer insolvency rates by census metropolitan area. Retrieved from:

(1) Raphael, D. (2004). Introduction to the social determinants of health. In D. Raphael (ed.) Social Determinates of Health: Canadian perspectives. Toronto: Canadian Scholar’s Press Inc.

Contact Info


10544 – 106 Street NW, Suite 200 (Bassani Building)
Edmonton, Alberta T5H 2X6



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