Social Well-Being Tracker

Our social well-being indicators are based on social determinants of health. These indicators are the economic and social conditions that shape the health of individuals and communities. Social determinants of health also determine the extent to which a person possesses the physical, social, and personal resources to identify and achieve personal aspirations, satisfy needs, and cope with the environment. Social determinants of health are about the quantity and quality of a variety of resources that a society makes available to its members. Important considerations include both the quality and their distribution amongst the population. 1

BAIncome & Income Gaps

BA8Source of Income, Single AdultsEdmonton CMA

Trend Analysis

Short Term

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Long Term

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Trend Value Neutral


Income is perhaps the most important social determinate of health. Level of income affects an individual or family’s ability to access goods and services that shape their living conditions and quality of life. Individuals and families need an income to pay for child care, housing, post-secondary education, healthy food, and out-of-pocket medical costs. Individuals and families with low incomes may face difficulty affording basic necessities and may be at higher risk of poverty and social exclusion.

It is important to consider income against the rising costs of living. When the cost of living increases at a faster rate than incomes, more low- and modest-income families are at risk of poverty.

  • Single adults rely on employment as their main source of income, but has recently decreased slightly. Own source income has grown slightly along with government transfers.
  • For persons not in census families (i.e. single adults), employment as a percentage of total income increased slightly from 68.6% in 2000 to 69.6% in 2015, and then decreased to 66.5% in 2019.
  • Income from government transfers declined slightly as a percentage of total income, from 15.9% in 2000 to 13.2% in 2015, then increased to 16.5% in 2019.
  • Own source income has grown slightly, from 15.5% of total income in the year 2000 to 17.1% in the year 2019.

Frenette, Marc. (2007). Why are youth from lower-in-come families less likely to attend university? Evidence from academic abilities, parental influences, and financial constraints. Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series. Catalogue no. 11F0019MIE - No. 295

BA1. Number of Tax-filers Statistics Canada. Table 11-10-0004-01 Selected characteristics of tax filers and dependants, income and demographics (final T1 Family File).

BA2. Female to male income ratio Statistics Canada. Table 11-10-0050-01 Tax filers and dependents with income by after-tax income, sex and age.

BA3 to BA5. Median after tax income by family type Statistics Canada. Table 11-10-0017-01 Census families by family type and family composition including before and after-tax median income of the family.

BA6 to BA8. Source of Income, By family type Statistics Canada. Table 11-10-0014-01 Sources of in-come by census family type

BA9. Real Median After tax income growth Statistics Canada. Table 11-10-0056-01 High income tax filers in Canada, specific geographic area thresholds, Statistics Canada. Table 18-10-0005-01 Consumer Price Index, annual average, not seasonally adjusted

BA10. Value of Alberta Minimum Wage Statistics Canada. (2018). Hourly minimum wages in Canada for adult workers. Retrieved from: , Statistics Canada. Table 18-10-0005-01 Consumer Price Index, annual average, not seasonally adjusted

BA11. Consumer Insolvency Rate Government of Canada (2020). Annual consumer insolvency rates by census metropolitan area. Retrieved from:

(1) Raphael, D. (2004). Introduction to the social determinants of health. In D. Raphael (ed.) Social Determinates of Health: Canadian perspectives. Toronto: Canadian Scholar’s Press Inc.

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Edmonton, Alberta T5H 2X6



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