Social Well-Being Tracker

Our social well-being indicators are based on social determinants of health. These indicators are the economic and social conditions that shape the health of individuals and communities. Social determinants of health also determine the extent to which a person possesses the physical, social, and personal resources to identify and achieve personal aspirations, satisfy needs, and cope with the environment. Social determinants of health are about the quantity and quality of a variety of resources that a society makes available to its members. Important considerations include both the quality and their distribution amongst the population. 1

FSocial Inclusion

F4Voter Turnout, Average of Federal, Provincial and Municipal ElectionsEdmonton City

Trend Analysis

Short Term

Long Term


Social inclusion is a concept in which every person in Canada has equal access to resources and opportunities, and is a valued member of society.

In reality, many aspects of Canadian society (such as racism, discriminatory policies, and an unequal economic system) marginalize groups and limit their access to social, cultural, and economic resources. This kind of social exclusion predominately affects Indigenous peoples, visible minorities, newcomers, women, LGBTQ2S+, and people living in low-income or with disabilities.

Social exclusion can lead to lower wages or unemployment, limited access to social services, and fewer opportunities for educational advancement. These barriers may then contribute to increased poverty, housing insecurity, and crime. Socially excluded groups are also less likely to participate in politics due to limited political power and influence on decision-makers. Overall, being socially excluded makes it difficult to participate in one’s community.

  • Voter turnout by Edmontonians is consistently the highest for federal elections and consistently lowest for municipal elections.
  • Competitive elections—with the prospect of a change in government at the federal/provincial levels, and a competitive mayoralty race at the municipal level—tend to lead to higher voter turnout.
  • The 2019 provincial election was highly competitive with a change from an NDP government to a UCP one. It had the highest voter turnout in the Edmonton region in the past two decades.

F1 and F2. Crime Rates

Statistics Canada. Table 35-10-0177-01 Incident-based crime statistics, by detailed violations, Canada, provinces, territories and Census Metropolitan G11. Areas

F3 Crime Severity Index

Statistics Canada. Table 35-10-0026-01 Crime severity index and weighted clearance rates, Canada, provinces, territories and Census Metropolitan Areas

F4. Voter Turnout

Election Canada (2019). Official voting results: Forty-third general election. Retrieved from:

Elections Alberta (2019). 2019 general election: A report of the chief electoral officer (Vol. 2). Retrieved from:

Previous election results retrieved from previous editions of Tracking the Trends

(1) Raphael, D. (2004). Introduction to the social determinants of health. In D. Raphael (ed.) Social Determinates of Health: Canadian perspectives. Toronto: Canadian Scholar's Press Inc.

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Edmonton, Alberta T5H 2X6



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